Holocene SST reconstructions are more spatially complete mediante the North Atlantic compared puro other oceans, although still primarily limited sicuro high sediment-accumulation-rate, near-shore basins. Pioneering research seeking onesto identify per long-term inclinazione per upper ocean temperatures focused on reconstructing SSTs for 9 and 6 ka, using planktonic foraminiferal assemblages ( Ruddiman and Mix, 1993 ). Calibration studies per the 1950s and 1960s had demonstrated that indivisible groupings of planktonic Foraminifera are highly correlated sicuro SST, mediante addenda to salinity and chicchera-column nutrients ( Morey et al., 2005 ). Ruddiman and Mix (1993) found giammai discernible pattern of past SST variability durante the North Atlantic and questioned both the methodology used for quantitative reconstructions and the age control associated with variable sediment-accumulation rates.
Verso subsequent study of reconstructed summer SST for 6 ka, using per variety of methods (diatom assemblages, marine mollusks, and dinoflagellate cysts), found that warmer conditions (+ 1–4 °C relative onesto today) inundated the Norwegian Sea, Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay, Nares Strait, Davis Strait, Labrador Sea, and Greenland Sea during a time when summertime insolation was approximately 7% higher than today ( Kerwin et al. (1999) , and references therein). This tendenza of warmer-than-present SSTs during the early puro middle Holocene is perhaps best illustrated con core MD952011 ( Pelato et al., 2002 ) from the Norwegian Sea where maximum SST warming (+ 2 ° C divisee sicuro today) accompanied the Holocene Thermal Maximum between 8.6 and 5.5 ka, followed by a gradual cooling preciso today’s temperatures.
A major breakthrough in Holocene paleoceanography was made with the development of alkenone paleothermometry in the 1980s ( Brassell et al., 1986 ). Alkenones are long-chained ketones synthesized as membrane lipids by certain kinds of algae that are well preserved in marine sediments (see Alkenone Paleothermometry Based on the Haptophyte Algae ). The alkenone unsaturation index U K 37 is considered to be a robust proxy for SST because the algal organisms synthesizing alkenones must live in the photic zone, where their growth temperature is closely tied to SST. By measuring the alkenone unsaturation ratio preserved in a wide array of marine-sediment cores, a detailed picture of past surface ocean conditions ).
Alkenone-based SST reconstructions from seven high-accumulation sediment cores per the North Atlantic (north of 35 ° N) and the western Mediterranean Sea esibizione verso cooling trend of 0.15–0.27 ° C per thousand years over the past 10 ka ( ). These records are significant mediante that they span per large distretto of the NE North Atlantic from 36° esatto 74 ° N latitude ( Figure 6 ). This surface ocean cooling movimento is also apparent con three non-alkenone reconstructions from the Labrador Sea and Iceland Basin ( Figure 7 ). Isotopic analyses (? 18 Ovvero) on two foraminiferal species, sopra combination with dinocyst assemblage tempo, suggest that SSTs have been cooling steadily since the early Holocene ( Solignac et al., 2004 ). These ? 18 Ovverosia records each show more high-frequency variability than the alkenone-derived records, likely because of the sensitivity of isotopes preciso changes sopra sea-surface salinity as well as surface temperature ( Solignac et al., 2004 ).
PALEOCEANOGRAPHY, RECORDS | Postglacial North Atlantic
From ) Apparent long-term cooling of the sea surface in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 455–583.
From Solignac S, de Vernal A, and Hillaire-) Holocene sea-surface conditions durante the North Atlantic – contrasted trends and regimes mediante the western and eastern sectors (Labrador Sea vs. Iceland Basin). Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 319–334.